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     Lorica shell-shaped, rounded or truncated, 
posteriorly rounded or extended into a point. 
Littoral and tychoplanktonic.
Small rotifers, 
size 60-120
μm. Benthic.

57 a. Marine and brackish/estuarine species.
Body oval, laterally compressed, 
with a rigid shell-shaped lorica 
and a head plate which, though slightly 
stiffened, can be retracted together 
with the anterior apart of the body. 
Foot in 3 segments, about one-fourth 
of the length of the body. Toes long 
and of equal length, sharply pointed, 
sometimes fused. Total length 70-90, 
dorsal lorica length 60 µm, 
foot + toes 30 µm.
Littoral in ponds (and rivers).
- Laguna de Bay, Pasig River.

   Colurella colurus, (EHRENBERG, 1830)
         [1978a+b, 1980, 1984a, 1986a, 2009a]

57 b. Freshwater species.
Length of body 70, width 35-37. 
Length of foot and toes
Calamba River, Lake Danao(Leyte/Cebu?).
   Colurella obtusa (GOSSE, 1886)

Lorica oval, egg- or pear-shaped, of 1 peace. Anterior
opening of lorica narrow, semicircular. Foot opening
deeply incised, foot with 3-4 sections. Two eyes.
Littoral, tychoplanktonic. Prefer acid waters (
Sládeček 1983).


58 a. Benthic, 9 species. In ponds. Some species occasionally in ponds and lakes.
 Se Mamaril (1986a)

 - Calamba River, IRRI rice field, Danao Lake, Lake Lanao,
   Paoay Lake, La Mesa Dam, etc.
    Lepadella sp
[1978a+b, 1986a, 1999]


Occasionally in ponds, lakes, and rivers

- Calamba River

  L. ovalis (MÜLLER, 1786) and

Among vegetation, mosses and even in plankton. Prefer

eutrophic waters (Sládeček 1983).

- Calamba River.

  L. patella (MÜLLER, 1773)

are planktonic species.
   [1978a+b, 1986a, 1999 ,Kutikova, 2002a]

LECANIDAE, (BARTOS, 1959) (family)
Jaws malleate. Only littoral species.


Lorica oval, pear- or shield-shaped. With dorsal and ventral plate.

Anterior opening of lorica broad. Foot very short, toes long, eventually

fused to one. One eye. Littoral, tychoplanktonic i.e. migrated from the

littoral to the pelagic (or limnetic) part of the lake. Rather

hermophilic group, with several species in tropical waters (Segers 2001b). 

Prefer acid waters (Sládeček 1983). Divided in to subgenus


59 a. A littoral genus, several species occurring 
between plants. 
27 species recorded by Mamaril (1986a)
- Laguna de Bay, Pasig River,
Calamba River,
  IRRI rice field, Danao Lake, Lake Lanao, etc.

   Lecane spp.

         (syn. Monostyla)
         [1941a, 1974, 1978a+b, 1980, 1984a, 1986a,

          1999, 2008b, 2009a]

2 toes on foot..........................Subgenus Lecane


Planktonic species (Mamaril and Fernando, 1978b).
Ricefields, ponds, lakes and reservoirs. S
tenohaline, so it cannot handle a wide fluctuation in the salt content of water. Common.
- La Mesa Dam
   Lecane (Lecane) curvicornis (MURRAY, 1913).


       Planktonic species (Kutikova, 2002a). Very common.
- Laguna de Bay
   Lecane (Lecane) leontina (TURNER, 1892)


       Planktonic species (Kutikova, 2002a). Very common.
- Paoay Lake, Laguna de Bay (se picture), Taal Lake.
   Lecane (Lecane) luna (MÜLLER, 1776)
            [2001a, 2011a]

Lecane luna from Laguna de Bay


Planktonic species (Mamaril and Fernando, 1978b).
In all types of freshwater, except in running waters. Very common.
- Laguna de Bay
   Lecane (Lecane) papuana (MURRAY, 1913).


Planktonic species (Mamaril and Fernando, 1978b).
In ponds, reservoirs, and lakes. Fairly common
- Lake Mainit, Lake Lanao.
   Lecane (Lecane) ungulata (GOSSE, 1887).


1 toe on foot........................Subgenus Monostyla:

Planktonic species (Kutikova, 2002a).
But normal inhabitants of the
vegetation in the littoral of lakes, ponds and pools.
(Sládeček 1983).
ery common.
- Paoay Lake, IRRI rice fields.
Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (GOSSE, 1886)
[2008b, 2011b+c]

L. bulla
(Photo by Rey D. S. Papa, 2007)

Planktonic species (Kutikova, 2002a). Common.
- Calamba River, Lake Danao
   Lecane (Monostyla) clostercerca (SCHMARDA, 1859)

Planktonic species (Kutikova, 2002a). In reservoirs and lakes.
Stenohaline, so it cannot handle a wide fluctuation in the salt content of water. Common.
- Laguna de Bay
   Lecane (Monostyla) stenroosi


 Planktonic species (Fernando 2002a). In lakes.
 - Taal Lake
   Lecane (Monostyla) patella (MÜLLER 1773)

         [2001a, 2011a]


        [see 1978a+b, 1980, 1984a, 1986a, 1999
         for further details]

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