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DAPHNIIDAE, STRAUS 1820 (family)
Second antenna with dorsal branch 3-segmented
and ventral branch 4-segmented. First antenna
short, not moveable, head small.
CERIODAPHNIA, DANA 1853
Rostrum absent. Food algae, bacteria and
detritus. Big individuals preyed
upon by fish, small individuals preyed
upon by invertebrate predators.
91 a. Head Head in front with a horn. Polymorphic, with or
without horn on the top of the head. The horned form is
favored by the presence of fish predators, while the
unhorned form is favored by a high primary production
caused by its higher reproduction rate than the horned
form (Zaret 1972). The unhorned form dominated in Tall
Lake correlated with a high productivity (Papa et al., 2012b).
Size 380-600 μm. Planktonic in lakes and ponds. Relatively
abundant near bottom in shallow lakes (Laguna de Bay). Common.
- Laguna de Bay, Paoay Lake, La Mesa Dam,
Sampaloc Lake, Bunot Lake, Taal Lake, Tadlac Lake, Lake Lanao.
Ceriodaphnia cornuta, SARS, 1885
(syn. Ceriodaphnia rigaudi)
[1928a, 1939c, 1941a, 1954, 1966, 1978a+b, 1980,
1984a, 1986a, 2001a, 2008b+e, 2011a+b+c, 2012a+b]
C. cornuta from Sampaloc Lake
C. cornuta from Laguna de Bay
(Photo: Rey Donne S. Papa, 2007)
(Foto: Rey Donne S. Papa)
91 b. Head without protruding rostrum, rounded ventrally pointed.
Head without a horn in front.................................92
92 a. Claw on postabdomen with big spines. Head rounded.
Anal spines in a single row. Size up to 1500 μm.
In littoral zone of lakes, fishponds and rice fields,
also in brackish water, up to 5 ppt salinity.
- In the vicinity of Manila. Record not verified! Might be
imported from Japan together with Volvox like Daphnia pulex
Ceriodaphnia reticulata (?) (JURINE, 1820)
Lowland Rice field near Laguna de Bay, Binangonan. (Photo: Flemming Petersen, 1979)
Note: A similar species (Ceriodaphnia dubia RICHARD, 1894) with long thin small spines (spinules) in middle pecten (comb) on claw on postabdomen occurs in tropics of all continents, but not yet recorded from the Philippines (Kořínek, 2002a).
92 b. Claw on postabdomen without big spines.
Head inflated and somewhat angular in front of the
first antenna. Postabdomen with a row of 3 to 4 slender
spines inner to the other row of spines. Size up to 860 μm.
Planktonic in eutrophic lakes and ponds and in littoral zone.
Also in brackish water, up to 8 ppt. salinity. Rare.
- Lake Lanao (Jetty near a mosque in Bacolod Chico near Lake Lanao)
Ceriodaphnia pulchella, SARS, 1862
Note: Other Philippine genera of Daphniidae, which accidentally can be
sampled near the shore.
With rostrum present:
Simocephalus SCHOEDLER, 1858.
In littoral zone on submerged macrophytes
Ponds and Rice fields. Common.
S. latirostris, (STINGELIN, 1906)
Roadside ditches. Rare.
- Taal Lake.
S. vetulus, O. F. MÜLLER, 1776,
[1939c, 1941a(vetula), 2001a, 2011a].
In the Philippines.
S. heilogjiangesis SHI et SHE 1994
Rice fields. Rare.
- Laguna de Bay
S. acutirostris, KING, 1853,
[1939c, 1978a+b, 1986a].
Simocephalus acutirostratus from Laguna de Bay
Scapholeberis SCHOEDLER, 1858.
Littoral zone in ponds and lakes, inhabit the surface layer. Swimming with ventral part of shell upwards against the water surface.
S. kingi SARS, 1903
Daphnia, O. F. Müller, 1785, which almost invariably influence food-web interactions and structures of plankton communities in temperature lakes, still has to be recorded for the Philippines (the record by Wright (1928a), turned out to have come from Japan, along with imported Volvox (Mamaril, personal communication)). A high, year-round predation by fish-larvae and planktivorous fish pressure might cause the absence from many tropical lakes of these relative big zooplanktons (Fernando, 2002a).
[1928a, 1939c, 1978a+b, 1986a, 2001a]
see however Aypa et al. (1983)
- Table 12 in Baluyut (1985).